As the inevitability of President Theresa May being crowned on June the 9th seems without doubt now, we are hurtling, possibly out of control towards the exit, or rather the hard Brexit. This means the UK tumbles out of the Single Market, out of the Common Agricultural Policy and into a brave new world, of Free Trade, if you believe the Conservative Party manifesto. Without a Free Trade deal with our largest export market (the EU) exporters pay a significant tariff for the benefit of exporting. With a Free Trade deal, exporters in other countries can gain unfettered access to our markets.
One of the consequences of this will be a big shift in the economics of farming, particularly farming in the uplands – and nowadays there is only one upland farming “gunslinger in town”, and that is lamb production.
So it is interesting, to say the least, that one particular upland area of England is seeking to bolster its upland farming system at the moment, via what is rather an unusual route. That route is an application by The Lake District National Park (strictly speaking a partnership broader than the National Park, but led by it) for UNESCO World Heritage Site status. World Heritage Status is not given out willy-nilly. It’s a challenging process that takes years, and of course the process began before Brexit. That Brexit has happened in the middle of the process, gives extra impetus to the application, some might say an urgency.
The first bid for WHS status for the Lake District was made in 1985, so this is just another stop along that long trek. The difference this time is that the Government is right behind the bid. James Rebanks of Rebanks Consulting prepared an an influential report, economic case for the bid in 2009 and this was updated in 2013. Through these report, Rebanks advised the National Park on how best the Lake District could best secure its economic benefit from the bid and the possible inscription. This is the same James Rebanks as the author of The Shepherd’s Life – and someone who has become a modern and eloquent champion for the sheep farming industry in the Lake District.
The WHS bid is interesting in the way that it places sheep farming at the heart of the concept of “Outstanding Universal Value” which is the way that UNESCO use to decide whether a site is up to the standard required for a World Heritage Site.
Outstanding Universal Value can be defined according to different criteria depending on the type of site. For instance, down here in Dorset the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site’s Outstanding Universal Value is defined solely by its geology, geomorphology, the history of the development of geology as a science; and the global significance of the Jurassic Coast in the teaching of those sciences. Despite the fact that the coast also supports wildlife sufficiently important for almost the entire area to be designated under European law (Birds and Habitats Directives), this was insufficient for it to qualify as a WHS for natural features.
World Heritage Sites also qualify if there are globally significant cultural features in an area or a site. Stonehenge is a World Heritage Site as is the Cornish tin mining landscape – and Kew Gardens. This is how the Lake District WHS bid defines its universal outstanding value in this document:
the bid goes on to describe in more detail how this fusion arose and what it means today
This is where it gets interesting. The suggestion, as I see it, is that the landscape of the Lake District today is rooted in and reflects centuries of farming – and indeed the farming that exists today is a continuation of that thousand year history.
There is no mention, anywhere in this document, of the decades of overgrazing by sheep. While the worst excesses of farm-subsidy funded overgrazing may have been in the past (I wrote about them back in 1999 for Friends of the Earth), the consequences of such overgrazing persist, in the form of altered habitats. Overgrazing by sheep contributed (and still does) to the decline in upland breeding birds. The impact on vegetation is profound: heathland has been replaced by grassland dominated by a few species. Even now, Natural England is recording areas of nationally important wildlife habitat as being overgrazed, such as this recent assessment of the Buttermere Fells SSSI.
Now George Monbiot, who often appears in these pages, has recently written another polemic against the proposal to designate this landscape as being of global importance and value and worth giving extra special protection. Monbiot argues that the Lake District is “sheep-wrecked”, that real natural value only resides in the fells being allowed to revert to forest, with or without Lynx, Wolves etc. This is hardly the first time he has attacked the Lake District and notions of natural beauty developed by the Romantic Movement – a movement the Lake District WHS bidders seek to use to justify the global significance of the landscape.
I must admit that I also have difficulty with this line of argument. While I can understand the importance in art and literature (and therefore our culture and to an extent global culture) of the English Romantics and their associations with the Lake District, I don’t necessarily see that that association gives the landscape global value. Writers, Artists and the like take their inspiration from a wide variety of sources – including nature, wild or tamed.
The First World War poets and artists were inspired (if that is the right word) by the horrors of the trenches and the destruction and loss of life wrought on an industrial scale never before seen. Does that justify World Heritage Status for what remains are left from that apocalypse? Perhaps. France has put forward on the WHS “tentative list” the cemeteries and memorials (not battlefield remnants though) associated with the First World War, though this has not been taken forward to a full bid yet (as far as I can see.) Still, this may be quite different from the idea that the art inspired by the event was a reason for WHS status.
I would be the first to admit not having an expertise in this area, and am very happy to be corrected on this.
Let’s go back to the idea that the Lake District as it is now is worthy of WHS status because of its centuries of previous agro-pastoral systems. Can it really be true that the farming system that operates in the Lake District today has any tangible link with what was happening a thousand years ago?
In the past the Lake District farming system would have included hardy sheep (which lived on the fells year-round) and cattle breeds grazing on the hills in the summer and being brought off the fells in the winter. Hay Meadows and special pollards were grown to produce winter fodder called tree hay. In the past small-scale arable cultivation was also an important element of the Lake District landscape (obviously not on the high fells) – going right back to Roman times.
There is another aspect to the Lake District landscape though – and that is its long history of industrial use. I think it’s fair to say that, as with many English upland landscapes, the Lake District is as much a post-industrial landscape as it as a pastoral one. Because of its geology the Lake District contains some very valuable minerals and these have been known about for millennia. The mining quarrying and processing of ores has greatly influenced the modern Lake District landscape – but imagine what that landscape must have been like when those industries were flourishing. It would have been very different, with chimneys belching smoke, strange smells and of course the many people who would have come to the Lake District to work in those industries. And the imagine all the fell ponies which would have been working hard to power these industries and haul their lodes. Where did they graze, what were they fed on?
I’ve seen a couple of pieces of “backlash” against Monbiot’s sheepwrecked claims in the press. I enjoy reading Private Eye but often wonder who writes the “Agri-Brigade” pieces. Here’s the latest one:
leaving aside the MoD’s plan to enclose a common (perhaps for another time), the author claims that the Foot and Mouth crisis led to “irreversible losses” of grazing and conjured up the demon of Gorse. I took a rather different view back in 2001 in a piece for ECOS called “any room for scrub?”. Back then George was staunchly defending the upland farmers!
The Guardian also published a couple of letters responding to Monbiot’s latest article.
But when you look at statistics for how many sheep used to be around and how many are around now, it does paint quite an interesting picture. I had a look through Defra statistics (so you don’t have to.)
The Lake District National Park was designated in 1951, just four years after the Hill Farming Act gave the Government powers to fund hill farmers to “improve” hill-land for agriculture. Improvement in this context means fertilising and re-seeding wildflower meadows and pastures, draining bogs, removing woodlands and so on. Payments continued to be made to hill farmers to increase the numbers of sheep on the fells through the next four decades.
In 1940 there were 13.17M sheep and lambs in England. Bear in mind this would have included many lowland sheep flocks which effectively disappeared after the war.
By 1950 England sheep and lamb numbers had more than halved to 8.5M in 1950. This had gone up to 20.8m in 1990 and had declined to 14.2M by 2010.
Cumberland supported 576,000 sheep and lambs in 1905 , 723,000 in 1935 and this had not really changed in 50 years, with 611,000 sheep and lambs in 1950.
Westmorland, which together with Cumberland formed most of Cumbria after the 1974 reorganisation, had the following populations of sheep and lamb. 1905 385000; 1935 465000; 1950 419000.
so Cumberland and Westmorland together had 961000 sheep and lambs in 1905; 1,118000 in 1935; 1,030,000 in 1950.
By 1985, at the height of the intensification funded by the Common Agricultural Policy (and preceding UK farm subsidies), this had increased to 2.04m sheep and lambs in Cumbria.
By 1995, when reforms were being brought in to reduce overproduction, there were 2.66M sheep and lambs in Cumbria.
Most recent figures for Cumbria (2013) show 1.95M sheep and lambs.
So this suggests that for Cumbria there are pretty much as many sheep and lambs now as there were at the height of food over-production in 1985 (the time of wheat mountains and wine lakes). And that there are twice as many sheep and lambs now as there were in 1950 when the National Park was established.
Compare this with what has happened to cattle numbers. Cumberland supported 153000 cattle in 1905 and Westmorland supported 71000 giving a total of 224000 cattle. The figure for 1950 for these counties was 327000 cattle.
The total figure for Cattle of all kinds across Cumbria in 2013 had declined to 143000.
There are now less than half as many cattle in Cumbria as there were in 1950.
There is also a big change in the number of dairy compared to beef cattle – there were 75000 dairy cows in 1905 in Cumberland & Westmorland and that figure is now 85000 across Cumbria. Most cattle in Cumbria now are dairy cattle, with only 57000 beef cattle. Whereas in 1905 or indeed 1950 there would have been far more cattle on the hills (in the Summer) now there are very few.
what does all this slightly amateurish number crunching show?
With the sheer number of sheep in Cumbria nearly as high as it ever was, and around three times as high as it was before agricultural intensification took off after the war, it is difficult to see how an argument can be made that the current farming system is essentially unchanged from the previous thousand years of pastoral farming. Combine that with the change in the grazing system, where cattle (and ponies) are no longer part of the grazing system; and I think it’s reasonable to say that the farming system in the Lake District, while on the surface appearing to be unchanged, has actually undergone a fundamental transformation in the last 70 years, and especially so in the last 40.
This is not to say that I want to see all of the Lake District converted into a rewilded landscape, and I also believe that there are good arguments for supporting farming systems which conserve rare breeds such as the Herdwick Sheep.
I just think that we need to be honest about what modern intensive farming has done to landscapes like the Lake District and how those farming systems have affected things like wildlife and historical features. Only then can we think about what public money, through for example farm support schemes, should be being used for.